The goal of diabetic exchange lists is to find the right balance of carbohydrates, proteins and fats to keep in the course of the day. Patients should help with a dietician or diabetes nutrition expert for learning in this approach to do justice.
In developing countries, a menu, to determine which patients first, their special dietary needs, especially the optimal number of daily calories and the proportion of carbohydrates, fat and protein. The exchange lists should then be used to menus for each day that these requirements are met.
Following are some general rules:
The diabetic exchange lists are six different lists of foods grouped according to similar calorie, carbohydrate, protein and fat, which are starch, meat, vegetables, fruit, milk and fat. A person must have certain number of choices from each food list per day Exchange.
The amount and type of these exchanges is based on a number of factors, including the daily exercise program, timing of insulin injections, and whether or not an individual to lose weight or reduce cholesterol or blood pressure needs.
Foods can be substituted for each other within an Exchange list, but not between lists even if they have the same calorie content.
In all lists (except in the fruit list) choices can be doubled or tripled to supply a serving of certain foods. (For example 3 starch choices equal 1.5 cups of hot cereal or 3 meat choices equal a 3-ounce hamburger.)
On the exchange lists, some foods are considered free. These diabetic foods contain less than 20 calories per serving and can be eaten in any quantity distributed over the day.
Diabetic Exchange List Categories
The following are the categories are awarded on the exchange lists:
Starch and bread. Each exchange under starch and bread contains about 15 grams carbohydrates, 3 g protein, and a trace of fat for a total of 80 calories. A general rule is that a half cup of cooked cereal, pasta or grains equals one Exchange and one ounces of bread also is one serving.
MEAT and CHEESE. The exchange groups for meat and cheese with lean meats and low fat substitutes, medium-fat meat and substitutes categorized and high-fat meat and substitutes. Fat rich exchange should be used to a maximum of 3 times per week. Fat should be removed before cooking. Exchange sizes on the meat list are generally one ounce and based on meat and sausages (3 ounces cooked meat equal to 4 ounces of raw meat).
VEGETABLES. Cup cooked vegetables Exchanges 02:01, 1 cup of raw and 02.01 cup of juice. Each group contains 5 grams carbohydrates, 2 g protein, and between 2-3 grams of fiber. Vegetables can be fresh or frozen, canned vegetables are less desirable because they are often high in sodium. They should be steamed or microwave without added fat.
FRUITS AND SUGARS. Sugars are included in the total carbohydrate content count in exchange lists. Sugar should be no more than 10% of daily carbohydrates. Each exchange contains about 15 grams of carbohydrates for a total of 60 calories.
MILK and MILK SUBSTITUTES. The milk and substitutes list is on the fat content of meat similar list sorted. Replacement is usually milk 1 cup or 8 ounces. A voided – for those who are on of weight-loss or low-cholesterol diet – skimmed milk and very low-fat milk should be used or followed from the milk group. Others should use the whole milk list very sparingly. All people with diabetes should avoid artificially sweetened milk.
FATS. A fat exchange is usually 1 teaspoon, but it can vary. People, of course, should avoid saturated and trans fatty acids and polyunsaturated or simply choose instead of unsaturated fatty acids.